Exploring the Historic Rideau Canal in Ottawa: 4 Top Things to Do
It is one of history's curiosities that a camp for 2,000 construction workers, led by Colonel John By, should eventually become the capital of Canada. Colonel By's Rideau Canal starts east of the Houses of Parliament, and connects the Ottawa River to the Rideau Valley through a system of locks. Canal banks provide space for all kinds of activities for Ottawa locals and tourists, from skating in winter to waterfront walks in summer.
The War of 1812, with the young United States, had shown how easily the U.S. could threaten the St. Lawrence. After the war, the Duke of Wellington dispatched scouts to Upper Canada to see if a solution could be found to the difficult situation.Colonel John By was sent to Canada in 1826 to oversee the building of a canal that would circumvent the dangerous waters of the St. Lawrence at Montréal and provide an alternative route for navigation as far as Lake Ontario, 200 kilometers to the southwest.
At the time of building (1826-32), the canal was a triumph of constructional engineering. More than four dozen dams were required to control the water levels, and the 83-meter ascent to the summit between Ottawa and Lake Ontario meant that boats had to pass through numerous locks.
Although steamers plied the canal for more than a hundred years, the waterway never came to have any major economic significance. Today, with its 24 operational locks, the canal is used mainly by pleasure boats and for tourism. The staircase of eight locks on Parliament Hill is highly photogenic. Ottawa's first stone building was on a site next to the canal.
Among the many interesting features on the Rideau Canal is the Stone Arch Dam at Jones Falls. Other attractions along the Jones Falls Locks include a lockmaster's house (built in 1841), the Blacksmith's shop (built in 1843), and Hotel Kenney, one of the oldest hotels in the area (built in 1888).
Eight locks at the north end of the Rideau Canal, near the entrance to the Ottawa River, were completely overhauled some years ago. Known as the Ottawa Locks, the area has an interpretive trail running alongside the canal. To help you make the most of your visit, take a look at our list of the the top things to do on and around the Rideau Canal.
1. Cruise the Rideau Canal
A favorite means of exploring this magnificent man-made feat of engineering is aboard an organized guided Rideau Canal cruise. The best of these come with an informative live commentary to ensure you don't miss a thing when it comes to learning about the canal's amazing history.
These 1.5-hour-long adventures provide a unique perspective of Ottawa, offering plenty of great views along the way of the city's top attractions, including the famous Château Laurier hotel, the Canadian Museum of Nature, and the National Arts Centre, to name but a few of the 30 you'll hear about. The journey takes in a long stretch of the canal that encompasses the section from Dow's Lake all the way to the Ottawa River.
2. Skate the Rideau Canal Skateway
Canadians like winter-especially in Ottawa, home to the magnificent Rideau Canal Skateway. Billed as the world's largest skating rink, the Skateway is a 7.8-kilometer-long stretch of the Rideau canal that freezes over each winter between January and March. An estimated million skaters take advantage of this unique experience each season, enjoying the route as it winds its way through the city's downtown core, some of whom actually use it as a means to get to school or work. And you can be guaranteed a smooth skate, as Ottawa has developed a system to "groom" the route-no mean task, given it covers the equivalent area of some 90 or so hockey rinks.
For a super-memorable experience, be sure to try a night skate; the whole route is lit up, and as it's a 24-hour-a-day attraction, you can do it at less crowded times, too. Facilities including heated washrooms and change rooms are available, along with skate and sleigh rentals (the sleighs are great to pull kids). Concession stands selling hot drinks and snacks (try a beavertail pastry) are also easy to find along the route.
3. Explore the Locks on the Rideau Canal in Summer
If visiting in warmer weather, be sure to allocate time to walk the pathways, parks, and gardens lining the Rideau Canal. A highlight of this extremely pleasant stroll is exploring the eight huge locks at the lower end of the canal, connecting it to the mighty Ottawa River.
Part of the fun is actually watching this mechanism being manually operated, cranked open, and shut by hardworking staff, and still working well after almost 140 years of operation. It's also fun simply sitting and enjoying a picnic while watching the boat traffic pass by, one lock at a time. To learn more about the workings of the locks, some great displays can be enjoyed at the Parks Canada Lockstation.
4. Learn the History of the Rideau Canal at the BYTOWN MUSEUM
Be sure to allocate a little time in your Ottawa travel itinerary to learn more about the history of this unique UNESCO World Heritage Site. A great place to do this is at the canal-side BYTOWN MUSEUM. This great little museum, housed in the city's oldest stone building, provides information related not just to the canal's construction, but also about the lives of the people involved, from those who designed it to those who did the hard work of building it (many of whom died in the process).
The building itself played a role in the story, as it was built and served as the construction project's storehouse and treasury. It's also a very pretty setting, constructed as it is close to the locks that lead to the Ottawa River.
Address: 1 Canal Lane, Ottawa, Ontario
Official site: www.bytownmuseum.com
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Where to Stay in Ottawa: If you want to base yourself near tourist attractions and things to do in the city, have a look at our article on Where to Stay in Ottawa: Best Areas & Hotels. This article provides options in a variety of price ranges.