15 Top-Rated Tourist Attractions in Istanbul
Coveted by empires across the centuries, straddling both Europe and Asia, Istanbul is one of the world's great metropolises. Founded around 1000 BC, the colony of Byzantium grew into the Byzantine Empire's great capital of Constantinople and after the Ottoman conquest of the city, retained its glorious place as the heart of their empire. The city (officially renamed Istanbul after the founding of the Turkish Republic) is liberally scattered with glorious remnants of its long and illustrious history ,and the sightseeing here will impress even the most monument-weary visitor.
As well as the big four (Aya Sofya, Topkapı Palace, Blue Mosque, and Grand Bazaar) leave enough time to explore the many other sights. Although many tourist attractions are located in, or near, the old city district of Sultanahmet, there is a dazzling array of other tourist attractions throughout the further reaches of the city.
1 Aya Sofya
It's said that when the Byzantine Emperor Justinian entered his finished church for the first time in AD 536, he cried out "Glory to God that I have been judged worthy of such a work. Oh Solomon, I have outdone you!" The Aya Sofya (formerly the Hagia Sophia) was the emperor's swaggering statement to the world of the wealth and technical ability of his empire. Tradition maintained that the area surrounding the emperor's throne within the church was the official centre of the world. Through its conversion to a mosque after the Ottoman armies conquered Constantinople to its further conversion into a museum in the 20th century, the Aya Sofya has remained one of Istanbul's most cherished landmarks.
Location: Aya Sofya Medanı, Sultanahmet
2 Topkapı Palace (Topkapı Sarayı)
First built by Mehmet the Conqueror in the 15th century, this glorious palace beside the Bosphorus is where sultans of the Ottoman Empire ruled over their dominions up until the 19th century. The vast complex is a dazzling display of Islamic art with opulent courtyards, lined with intricate hand-painted tile-work, linking a warren of sumptuously decorated rooms, all bounded by battlement walls and tower.
Of the many highlights here the most popular are: the Harem (where the sultan's many concubines and children would while away their days); the Second Court where you can walk through the vast Palace Kitchens and stand in awe at the dazzling interior of the Imperial Council Chamber; and the Third Court (which contained the sultan's private rooms) which displays an impressive collection of relics of the Prophet Muhammad in the Sacred Safekeeping Room, and is home to the Imperial Treasury where you're greeted with a cache of glittering gold objects and precious gems that will make your eyes water. To fully see Topkapı Palace, you'll need at least half a day.
Location: Babıhümayun Caddesi, Gülhane Park
3 Blue Mosque (Sultan Ahmet Camii)
Sultan Ahmet I's grand architectural gift to his capital was this beautiful mosque, commonly known as the Blue Mosque today. Built between 1609 and 1616, the mosque caused a furore throughout the Muslim world when it was finished as it had six minarets (the same number as the Great Mosque of Mecca). A seventh minaret was eventually gifted to Mecca to stem the dissent. The mosque gets its nickname from its interior decoration of tens of thousands of İznik tiles. The entire spatial and colour effect of the interior make the mosque one of the finest achievements of Ottoman architecture.
Location: At meydanı, Sultanahmet
4 Basilica Cistern (Yerebatan Sarnıçı)
The Basilica Cistern is one of Istanbul's most surprising tourist attractions. This huge, palace-like underground hall, supported by 336 columns in 12 rows, once stored the imperial water supply for the Byzantine emperors. The project was begun by Constantine the Great, but finished by Emperor Justinian in the 6th century. Many of the columns used in construction were recycled from earlier classical structures so feature decorative carvings. The most famous of these are the column bases known as the Medusa stones in the northwest corner with their Medusa head carvings. A visit here is very atmospheric with the columns beautifully lit and the soft steady trickle of water all around you.
Location: Yerebatan Caddesi, Sultanahmet
The ancient Hippodrome was begun by Septimus Severus in AD 203 and completed by Constantine the Great in AD 330. This was the centre of Byzantine public life and the scene of splendid games and chariot races but also factional conflicts. Today there isn't much of the Hippodrome left to see except for a small section of the gallery walls on the southern side, but the At Meydanı (park) that now stands on the site is home to a variety of monuments.
On the northwest side is a fountain, presented to the Ottoman sultan by the German Emperor William II in 1898. Then, heading southwest are three ancient monuments: a 20 m high Egyptian obelisk (from Heliopolis); the Serpent Column brought here from Delphi by Constantine; and a stone obelisk that originally was clad in gold-covered bronze plating until they were stolen by the soldiers of the 4th Crusade in 1204.
Location: At Meydanı, Sultanahmet
6 Istanbul Archaeology Museum
Just a hop, skip and jump away from Topkapı Palace, this important museum complex brings together a staggering array of artifacts from Turkey and throughout the Middle East and sweeps through the vast breadth of history of this region. There are three separate sections in the complex, each of which are worthy of a visit: the Museum of the Ancient Orient; the main Archaeology Museum; and the Tiled Pavilion of Mehmet the Conqueror, which holds a staggering collection of ceramic art. As well as all the wonderful artifacts on display, don't miss the interesting Istanbul Through the Ages exhibit room in the main Archaeology Museum.
Location: Gülhane Park, Sultanahmet
7 Grand Bazaar (Kapalı Çarşı)
For many visitors sightseeing in Istanbul is as much about shopping as museums and monumental attractions, and the Grand Bazaar is where everyone comes. This massive covered market is basically the world's first shopping mall; it takes up a whole city quarter, surrounded by thick walls, between the Nure Osmanıye Mosque and Beyazıt Mosque.
Entrance is through one of 11 gates from where a maze of vaulted-ceiling lane-ways, lined by shops and stalls, cover the area. The various trades are still mostly segregated into particular sections, which makes browsing easier.
Location: Beyazıt Meydanı, Beyazıt
8 Süleymaniye Mosque
Sitting high on the hill above Sultanahmet district, the Süleymaniye Mosque is one of the most recognised landmarks of Istanbul. It was built for Süleyman the Magnificent by the famed Ottoman architect Sinan between 1549 and 75. The interior, dominated by its soaring 53 m dome is notable for its harmonious proportions and unity of design. Outside in the tranquil garden area is an interesting Ottoman cemetery that is also home to the türbes (tombs) of the Sultan Süleyman and his wife Haseki Hürrem Sultan (known in the west as Roxelana).
Location: Süleymaniye Caddesi, Beyazıt
9 Spice Bazaar (Mısır Çarşısı)
The Spice Bazaar is the place to get your foodie fix of lokum (Turkish delight), dried fruit, nuts, herbs and of course spice. Much of the money that helped construct it came from the taxes the Ottoman government levied on Egyptian-made products which is why it's name in Turkish (Mısır Çarşısı) means "Egyptian Market". The Spice Bazaar is a prime tourist attraction and at certain times of the day gets ridiculously crowded with huge tour groups from the docked cruise ships. Try to come before 11am or after 4pm.
Location: Yenicamii Meydanı, Eminönü
10 Dolmabahçe Palace
The sumptuous and ornate Dolmabahçe Palace shows the clear influence of European decoration and architecture on the Ottoman Empire in the 19th century. Built by Sultan Abdul Mecid I in 1854, it replaced Topkapı Palace as the main residence of the sultans. The formal gardens are punctuated with fountains, ornamental basins and blooming flower beds while inside the sheer splendour and pomp of the Turkish Renaissance style is dazzling. The interiors mix rococo, baroque, neoclassical and ottoman elements, with mammoth crystal chandeliers, liberal use of gold, French-style furniture and dazzling ceiling frescoes.
Location: Dolmabahçe Caddesi, Beşiktaş
11 Chora Church (Kariye Müzesi)
Chora means "country" in Greek and this beautiful Church (originally called the Church of St Saviour of Chora) lies just outside old Constantinople's city walls. The first Chora Church was probably built here in the 5th century, but what you see now is the building's 6th reconstruction as it was destroyed completely in the 9th century and went through several face-lifts from the 11th to 14th centuries.
The church (now a museum) is rightly world-famous for its fabulously vibrant 14th century mosaics, preserved almost intact in the two narthexes and fragmentary in the nave, and the frescoes along the walls and domes. These incredible examples of Byzantine artistry cover a wide range of themes from the genealogy of Christ to the New Testament stories.
Location: Kariye Camii Sokak, Edirnekapı
12 Museum of Turkish and Islamic Arts (Türk ve Islam Eserleri Müzesi)
Housed in the palace of İbrahim Paşa, who was Grand Vizier for Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent, this museum is a must-see attraction for anyone interested in Ottoman art. The carpet collection on display here is heralded by textile experts as the world's best, while there are also exquisite ceramics, calligraphy and wood carving exhibits.
Location: At Meydanı Caddesi, Sultanahmet
13 Little Aya Sofya (Küçük Aya Sofya)
Before Emperor Justinian built the Aya Sofya he had to test out if the building would work structurally, so he built this miniature version first. Its original name was the Church of Sergius and Bacchus, but the obvious architectural parallels with the Aya Sofya led to its long-held nickname becoming the building's official title. During the Ottoman era the church was converted into a mosque and it still functions as a working mosque today. Although its proportions aren't as grandiose as others in Istanbul the building has been beautifully restored in recent years and is well worth a visit.
Location: Küçük Aya Sofya Caddesi , Sultanahmet
14 Rüstem Paşa Mosque
Possibly the most perfectly pretty mosque in Istanbul, Rüstem Paşa Mosque is home to the most stunningly preserved İznik tile panels in the city. Both the exterior courtyard walls and the mosque interior are lined with these gorgeously intricate hand painted tiles in blues, reds and greens.
Location: Hasırcılar Caddesi, Eminönü
15 Yedikule Fortress (Yedikule Hısarı)
Although it's a bit of a schlep on the suburban train to get out to Yedikule, this commanding fortress is well worth it. Built in the 5th century by the Emperor Theodosius II, the fortress made up the southern section of Constantinople's defensive walls. The mammoth arch (blocked up in the late Byzantine period) was known as Porta Aurea (Golden Gate) with doors plated in gold. When the Ottomans conquered the city they used the fortress for defense, and later as a prison and execution place. Yedikule has been restored in recent years and you can climb up to the top of the battlements for superb views across the Sea of Marmara.
Location: Yedikule Sokak, Yedikule
Other Notable Attractions
This Genoese tower was built in the 14th century and is one of Istanbul's most recognisable landmarks. There are great panoramic views over the city from the top balcony.
Location: Bankalar Caddesi, Karaköy
Great Palace Mosaic Museum
This small museum displays a 250 sq m fragment of mosaic pavement that was unearthed in the 1950s behind the Blue Mosque. There are excellent information panels that explain the mosaic floor's recovery and subsequent rescue.
Location: Torun Sokak, Sultanahmet
New Mosque (Yeni Camii)
The stately Yeni Camii was begun in 1615 and finished in 1663 (that's new by Istanbul standards). The interior is richly decorated with tile-work and liberal use of gold leaf.
Location: Yeni Camii Meydanı, Eminönü
Proving that Istanbul isn't just about historic sightseeing, this thoroughly up-to-the-minute art gallery holds an extensive collection of Turkish modern art with an ever-changing calendar of exhibitions throughout the year. The location, right on the Bosphorus, is a winner and there's a very stylish café here too.
Location: Meclis-i Mebusan Caddesi, Tophane
Istanbul's most famous art gallery is the lovely Pera Museum, which is home to a wealth of paintings from the Ottoman era. There is also a program of regularly changing exhibitions that display the art world's biggest names.
Location: Meşrutiyet Caddesi, Tepebaşı
Museum of Innocence
Orhan Pamuk is Turkey's most famous author and the winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature. This museum is based around the theme of his novel "The Museum of Innocence" and is a rather bizarre, kooky and wonderfully atmospheric experience.
Location: Çukurcuma Caddesi, Çukurcuma
If you want to get that all-important Istanbul skyline view of minarets and palaces, then you have to get out on the water. The Bosphorus slices the city in half, separating Europe from Asia and is a vital thoroughfare for the city. Full and half-day cruise trips begin from Eminönü dock allowing you panoramic shore and skyline views.
At the northern end of the Golden Horn, easily reachable by ferry from Eminönü dock, lies the suburb of Eyüp - a centre of pilgrimage to the Türbe of Eyüp (tomb of the Prophet Muhammad's standard-bearer, who was killed in the first Arab siege of Constantinople in AD 678). Opposite is the Eyüp Mosque built in 1459 where new sultans were inaugurated. The cemetery on the hill above is full of ornate tombstones and has magnificent views over the water.
One of Istanbul locals' favourite escapes from the city, the Princes Islands sit in the northeast corner of the Sea of Marmara offering serenely beautiful scenery just half an hour away from the bustle. There are no cars on the islands and horse-drawn carriages offer the main form of transport. As well as swimming and water sports, Haybeliada Island has the lovely Merit Halki Palace and Büyükada is home to the Monastery of St George.
Along the old city district's main thoroughfare of Divanyolu Caddesi you come to the Burned Column. This stump (still 40 m high) of a porphyry column was set up by Constantine the Great in his forum. Until 1105 it bore a bronze statue of Constantine.
Beyazıt Mosque (Beyazıt Camii)
Just to the west of the Grand Bazaar, on the third of Istanbul's seven hills, Beyazıt Square occupies the site of Theodosius I's Forum. On the east side of the square is the Beyazıt Mosque, built in 1498-1505. The architecture here is inspired by the Aya Sofya.
Fatih Mosque (Fatih Camii)
The Fatih Mosque is the holiest mosque in Istanbul after the Eyüp Mosque. It was built by Sultan Mehmet the Conqueror between 1463 and 71, and was the city's first new imperial mosque after the Ottoman conquest. In the first türbe (tomb) behind the mosque is the resting place of Sultan Mehmet.
The city's most famous bridge links the old city district with Beyoǧlu and Taksim and bustles all day with pedestrians and traffic. The present bridge was built in 1992, replacing the old Galata Bridge which burnt down in 1991.
İstiklal Caddesi and Taksim Square
Pedestrianised İstiklal Caddesi (Independence Street) is a bustling modern shopping street with a wealth of restaurants and cafés. The lower end of the street can be reached by taking the world's oldest underground railway from near Galata Bridge - the Tünel, constructed in 1875. There is also a quaintly old-fashioned tramway that runs along its length right up to Taksim Square at the top of the hill. A large number of churches and old consulate buildings are located nearby.
From Taksim Square, busy Cumhuriyet Caddesi is lined with hotels, shops, restaurants and high rises. On the east side of the road, just after the square, is Maçka Park which is home to the interesting Military Museum.
One of the finest natural harbours in the world, the Golden Horn is a 7 km long curving inlet opening up on the Bosphorus near the Galata Bridge. In the medieval era, the Golden Horn could be closed to shipping by a chain across its mouth. For great shoreline views, stop at Hasköy (where you can visit the ornate 18th century pavilion of Aynalıkavak Kasrı) and Eyüp (where you can catch a cruise from Eminönü dock).
Istanbul's Asian shore is easily reached by ferry from Eminönü dock across the Bosphorus. On an islet just off the Asiatic shore stands the 30 m high Kiz Kulesi (Maiden's Tower). Üsküdar was traditionally known as Scutari and has some handsome old mosques, winding lanes and weathered brown timber houses (particularly between the ferry dock and the large cemetery). The town, known in antiquity as Chrysopolis, was one of the earliest Greek settlements on the Bosporus. It was much more exposed to attack by foreign conquerors than was Constantinople with its defensive situation and strong walls, but it was also able to draw economic advantage from its exposed situation: until 1800 it was the terminus of caravan routes bringing treasures of the East to Constantinople, from which they were sent to Europe.
Of particular sightseeing interest here is the Mihrimah Sultan Mosque, built by Süleyman the Magnificent in 1547 for his daughter Mihrimah, and the Yeni Valide Mosque constructed in the 18th century by Sultan Ahmet III.