Inner Ring, Budapest Kiskörút
The Inner Ring encircles the old town center of Pest and follows the former town walls.
Transit: Buses 1, 9
Completed in 1847, the Hungarian National Museum in Budapest is housed in a classical style building in park like surroundings. The Museum provides interesting historical information about the country.
The 18th C University Church is one of the finest Baroque churches in the city.
Petofi Literary Museum
Named after its last owner, the Hungarian politician and first President of the Republic, Mihály Károlyi (1875-1955), this building in the street of the same name has an interesting past. It was built at the end of the 17th C as a single-story mansion. In the 18th C A. Mayerhoffer added a Baroque front, and this in turn was converted to the classical style in 1832/4. In 1848/9 the Austrian General Julius Haynau, who was to crush the freedom fighters, resided here. It was here, too, that Count Lajos Batthyány, Hungary's first prime minister, was arrested in 1849.A memorial room has been furnished in honor of Mihály Károlyi. The Károlyi Palace now houses a Museum of Literature dedicated to the best-known Hungarian poet of the revolutionary period, Sándor Petofi. The museum contains Hungarian "literabilia" and a collection of texts by the leading Hungarian poets and writers.Manuscripts, books and periodicals, a sound archive and works by various notable artists add to the museum's attractions. From time to time there are exhibitions on selected themes or on the subject of particular Hungarian writers.
Pest Synagogue and Jewish Museum
At the beginning of Dohány utca, stands the Pest Synagogue, built between 1854 and 1859 to the plans of the Viennese architect Ludwig Förster. The romanticized Moorish-Byzantine style of this three-aisled temple is very pleasing to the eye; Frigyes Feszl was responsible for the fine interior.The Jewish Museum (Orságos Zsidó Vallási és Történeti Gyüjtemény) is housed in an annex of the synagogue. In 1944/45 the garden, surrounded by arcades, was made into a cemetery for the victims of the Budapest ghetto.
Address: Dohány utca 2, Budapest, Pest 1077, Hungary
Opening hours: Apr 15 to Oct 31: 10am-5pm; Sun: 10am-2pm; Fri: 10am-3pm; Closed: Sat
Nov 1 to Apr 14: 10am-3pm; Sun: 10am-2pm; Fri: 10am-2pm; Closed: Sat
Nov 1 to Apr 14: 10am-3pm; Sun: 10am-2pm; Fri: 10am-2pm; Closed: Sat
Entrance fee in HUF: Adult Ft600.00, Senior Ft300.00, Students Ft200.00, Child 14 & under FREE
Transit: Buses 7, 7A, 78
Two leading Hungarian cultural institutions are located in the Museum Ring. Imre Steindl, who was also the architect of the Parliament Building, designed the Neo-Renaissance buildings of the Faculty of Natural Science of Eötvös Loránd University, while Mihály Pollack drew up the plans for the majestic Hungarian National Museum. Also of architectural merit is house No. 7, for which M. Ybl was responsible in 1852. Remains of the city walls of Pest can still be seen in the courtyards of Nos. 17 and 21.
Kálvin tér (Calvin Square), on the southern edge of the center of Pest, is now an important traffic junction. A few years ago, during building work, the remains of a medieval city gate were uncovered. There are some interesting buildings around the square, including the former inn, The Two Lions (No. 8), dating from 1818. A little to the east in Baross tér is the Ervin-Szabó Library in a 19th C Neo-Baroque building by A. Meining.
This single-aisled church in a severe Classical style was designed by József Hofrichter and József Hild and built between 1816 and 1859. The four columns of its notable portico support a tympanum. The interior has a good coffered ceiling and contains the funerary monument of Countess Zichy. The church treasury houses valuable articles of goldsmiths' work dating from the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries.
The Bible Museum features three millennia of the world of the Bible. The first printed Greek New testament issued by Erasmus; the Luther Old Testament translation; the so-called Vizsolyi Bible and the first complete Hungarian translation of the Bible are included in the exhibition.
The Central Market opened towards the end of the 19th C. The structure originally incorporated an indoor canal by which goods were delivered to the market traders. Although the canal is long gone, there is a variety of fresh produce, meat and flowers for sale.
Károly körút (Charles Ring, formerly known as Tanács körút, or Councillors' Ring) leads southeast from Deák tér. In recent years it has become an important business street. On its northeast side stands Madách House (1937), the home of the Madách Studio Theatre. Nearby is the exhibition hall of the City Council (No. 4) together with the Budapest Film Museum (Film-múzeum; No. 3) in which performances are given mostly of old films.
Bajcsy-Zsilinszky út is one of the finest streets in the Hungarian capital; it links the Pest district with Leopold Town to its north. Only the short, southernmost section of this busy street actually forms part of the Inner Ring. Along it are many buildings in Late Romantic and Eclectic styles, as well as new, modern shops and offices.
Almost 2ha (5ac) in extent Engels tér was once the site of a cemetery and is today the location of the long-distance bus station. In the center of a lawn stands the Danubius Fountain, designed by Ybl in 1883 and originally set up on Kálvin tér. The figures on the fountain by L. Feszler were overhauled by D. Gyori in 1959. They symbolize the Danube and its three largest tributaries, the Drau, the Theiss and the Save. One the east side of the square is a marble memorial by G. Kiss (1906) commemorating Frau Veres (1815-95), who was outstanding in the field of education for women.J. Horvay (1929) was the sculptor of the bronze figure of a shepherd playing a pipe, on the north-west side of the square. Of considerable architectural merit are the buildings in the Classical manner at József Attila utca Nos. 1 and 2, and the building by J. Hild at József Attila utca No. 16.
Completed in 1859 from a Lajos Förster design, the Great Synagogue has Moorish style domes that make it one of the most distinguishable landmarks in Pest. The detailed façade of the building is decorated with brickwork in the colors of the city - blue, yellow and red. Adjoining the main building, is the Heroes Temple, which seats 250 people and is used for religious services on weekdays.
Department Store Ring (Tolbuhin Ring)
Vámház körút (Department Store Ring; previously named Tolbuhin körút, or Tolbuhin Ring) in recent years has become a busy shopping street. This is largely due to the proximity of the central market hall at the Pest end of Freedom Bridge (Szabadság-hid). The University of Economics stands nearby.
Deák Ferenc tér
Deák Ferenc tér adjoins Erzsébet tér on the southeast, and is one of the most important inner-city traffic junctions. Three Underground lines meet here. Anker Palace on its east side, formerly the head office of an insurance company, should not be overlooked.
Of special merit is the Evangelical Church (Evangélikus templom; Lutheran Church), which was built at the beginning of the 19th C to plans by Mihály Pollack. The main façade was rebuilt by József Hild in 1856. Visitors will find much to admire in the copy of Raphael's "Transfiguration" on the altar.The church is at present the home of the Evangelical National Museum (Evangélikus Országos Múzeum). It contains some very interesting exhibits of church history and some valuable gold work. Martin Luther's testament is also kept here.Near the church stands the minister's house and the former Evangelical secondary school, both fine neo-classical buildings.
In Budapest there is a three line system, with all lines meeting in the city centre at Deák Ferenc Tér.M1 was opened in 1896 between Vörösmarty tér in the centre and Széchenyi fürdö.M2 is an east-west line connecting both major railway stations, Déli (South station) and Keleti (East station).M3 is a north-south connection on the Pest side of the city from Deák Ferenc tér to Újpest Központ.
The Underground Museum (Földalatti Vasúti Múzeum) occupies a tunnel dug in 1896 for the then first Underground railroad in continental Europe. Various exhibits, especially some early Art Nouveau-style carriages, illustrate the development of this mass transport undertaking which was to prove so important for the Hungarian capital.
National Lutheran Museum
Cultural and artistic objects of the Lutheran Church dating from the Reformation to the end of the Second World War are presented as well as the influence on Hungarian culture.