Inner City, Salzburg
Inner CitySalzburg Inner City walking tour.
ResidenzplatzThe very heart of the Salzburg old town on the left bank of the Salzach is the Residenzplatz, with the Residenzbrunnen of Untersberg marble, the largest and finest Baroque fountain this side of the Alps, the work of an Italian sculptor (1656-61). It stands 15m/50ft high, with figures of bold horses, Atlas figures bearing dishes, dolphins and, crowning the whole, a Triton with a conch shell.
Gallery, Salzburg ResidenzOn the western side of the Salzburg Residenzplatz stands the Residenz (palace of the Prince Bishops), built between 1596 and 1619 on the site of the medieval bishop's palace. The palace is laid out around three courtyards; the main front has a marble gateway of 1710. The northwestern range of buildings, of little architectural merit, was added in 1788-92. The artist Hans Makart was born in the palace in 1840. There are conducted tours of the palace. The state apartments are decorated in Late Baroque and Early Neo-Classical style, with wall and ceiling paintings by Johann Michael Rottmayr and Martino Altomonte, rich stucco ornaments and handsome fireplaces. The Karabinieresaal dates from the 17th C. In the Knights' Hall (Rittersaal) and Conference Hall (Konferenzsaal), once the scene of court concerts, concerts are still given during the Festival season. The splendid Audience Hall (Audienzsaal) contains Flemish tapestries (c. 1600) and fine Paris-made furniture. The Markus Sittikus or White Hall (Weisse Saal) has stucco ornament in Louis XVI style (1776). In the Function Room (Gesellschaftszimmer) the silk carpets of 1782 are still in use. In the Imperial Hall (Kaisersaal) hang portraits of Holy Roman Emperors and Kings of the Habsburg dynasty from Rudolf I to Charles VI (17th and 18th C.), and in the State Apartments portraits of the old Prince Bishops.
On the third floor of the Salzburg Residenz, visitors are shown the Residenzgalerie, established in 1923, which contains works by European painters from the 16th to 19th C. The Czernin and Schönborn-Buchheim collection contains works by Dutch, Flemish, French, Italian and Spanish masters of the 16th and 17th C. The Austrian school is represented by Maulbertsch and Waldmüller, among others.The most notable paintings in the Residenzgalerie are 17th century works by Dutch artists, including Rembrandt, Rubens and Brueghel.The fifteen halls located on the 13th floor are also open for numerous specialized exhibitions every year.
Address: Residenzplatz 1, A-5010 Salzburg, Austria
Opposite the Salzburg Residenz is the Neugebäude (New Building), erected in 1592-1602 as the Archbishop's guest-house and enlarged about 1670, which now contains provincial government offices and the Head Post Office (southern end). The tower houses a carillon (Glockenspiel) of 35 bells (1702), which plays Mozart tunes three times daily (at 7 a.m., 11 a.m. and 6 p.m.; conducted tours begin at 10.45 a.m. and 5.45 p.m.), when the Hornwerk organ (the "Salzburg Bull") in the Hohensalzburg responds with a chorale.
St Michael's Church
On the northern side of the Salzburg Residenzplatz, at the corner of Mozartplatz, stands the charming little Michaelskirche (St Michael's Church, 1767-76; basically Romanesque but with many alterations); it was the town's parish church from the eighth to the 12th C.
In Salzburg's Mozartplatz can be seen a Mozart Monument by Ludwig Schwanthaler (1842). At Waagplatz No. 1 is the house in which the poet and lyricist Georg Trakl (1887-1914) was born. The Waagplatz is the town's oldest market square (c. 1000).
Salzburg CathedralA prominent building in Salzburg's skyline, the Cathedral was built between 1652 and 1657. The Church features a distinctly Italian style of architecture.
Benedictine Abbey of St Peter
Benedictine Abbey of St Peter
St Peter's Church
St Peter's Church Steve CollisSalzburg's St Peter's Church (Stiftskirche St Peter) was built in 1130-43, altered in 1605-25 and decorated in Roccoco style between 1757 and 1783. The helm tower also dates from the latter period. Inside the porch under the tower is the Romanesque west doorway (c. 1240), with sculpture in the tympanum; the Roccoco door dates from 1765. The interior, in which the plan of the Romanesque basilica can still be detected, contains many monuments of great interest. In the third chapel behind the altar is the rock-hewn tomb of St Rupert, with an epitaph of 1444, and in the fourth chapel will be found the monuments of Mozart's sister Marianne ("Nannerl"), who died in 1829 as Baroness Berchtold zu Sonnenburg, and of J. M. Haydn, the brother of Joseph. By the choir screen stand two bronze candelabra of 1609. All but two of the altarpieces on the 16 marble altars were painted by Martin Johann Schmidt of Krems, known as "Kremser Schmidt" (1718-1801). The Lady Chapel (Marienkapelle; not open to the public) of 1319 on the northern side of the church contains a stone figure of the Virgin dating from the same period as the chapel, Early Gothic frescos and later frescos of 1755.
Address: Postfach 113, A-5010 Salzburg, Austria
To the north of St Peter's Church in Salzburg's Inner City stands the Franciscan Church (Franziskanerkirche), which was the town's parish church (dedicated to the Virgin) until 1635. Notable features of the exterior are the high roof of the choir and the tower on the southern side (1468-98) with its Neo-Gothic helm roof of 1867. The dark Romanesque nave (13th C.) contrasts with the high, light Gothic choir (by Hans Stettheimer, 1408 to after 1450). In front of a ring of Baroque chapels (1606-1704) stands the high altar (1709; probably by J. B. Fischer von Erlach), with a carved Madonna by Michael Pacher (1498; the Child is 19th C.). In the central chapel behind the altar is a winged marble altar (1561) from the old Cathedral. Opposite the church, to the south, lies the Franciscan Friary.
From the Salzburg Franciscan Church it is only a short distance to the Rupertinum, a building in Wiener-Philharmoniker-Gasse (No. 9). This house, built by Archbishop Paris Lodron as the "Collegium Rupertinum", now houses the Rupertinum Collection of 20th-century painting, graphic art, sculpture and photography. Particularly worthy of mention are the almost complete collection of prints by Kokoschka, as well as work by Kirchner, Nolde, Heckel, Kubin and Schiele, and a photograph gallery.
Address: Wiener-Philharmoniker-Gasse 9, A-5010 Salzburg, Austria
Salzburg Festival - Theatres
In Salzburg, in the southern side of Max-Reinhardt-Platz and Hofstallgasse, backing on to the Mönchsberg, stand the Festspielhäuser (Festival Theaters). They occupy the site of the old Court Stables (Hofmarstall) built in 1607 and enlarged in 1662, of which only three gateways survive in the much altered facades; the one in the northwest facade, erected by J. B. Fischer von Erlach in 1694, is particularly fine. The whole building, 225m/740ft long, is divided into the Large (New) House and the Small (Old) House; between them are the Foyer (frescos by Anton Faistauer), offices, workshops and the Karl-Böhm Hall. This Hall, used mainly by audiences during intervals but also for exhibitions and receptions, was converted from the small Winter Riding School (1662); the ceiling frescos (1690; restored) depict scenes of fighting with the Turks.
Address: Hofstallgasse 1, A-5010 Salzburg, Austria
This annual festival takes place during the first two weekends in August. Events include various classical concerts, recitals, dance performances, literary readings and even children's activities. There are usually over 20 performances organized and most take place in the Hellbrunn Palace and Park.
Address: Postfach 47, A-5020 Salzburg, Austria
This annual 10-day festival runs from late January to early February and includes over 30 events such as classical concerts, recitals and operas. The venues include the Mozarteum, the Large Festival Theater, the Landestheater, the Franciscan Church, the cathedral, the University and Mozart's residence.
Salzburg Cultural Days
This annual two-week festival takes place in late October and includes symphonic and chamber concerts and opera performances. There are almost 20 events organized in venues such as the Large Festival Theater, Residenz Palace, Mozarteum and the Salzburg University.
This annual festival was created as an inexpensive alternative to the Salzburg Festival. Despite its lower prices, this festival still includes top-quality dance, theatrical and musical performances by renowned artists from around the world. The festival runs from mid-July to mid-August.
Address: Anton-Neumayr Platz 2, A-5010 Salzburg, Austria
This nine-day festival was founded by Herbert von Karajan and is considered one of Europe's best. Events include operas and orchestral concerts. The festival runs from Palm Sunday to Easter Monday in the large festival theater.
Address: Herbert-von-Karajan-Platz 9, A-5020 Salzburg, Austria
This annual series of concerts takes place during the Whitsun / Pentecost weekend. Classical and sacred music is performed at Grosses Festspielhaus by various local groups, as well as acclaimed international orchestras.
Address: Grosses Festspielhaus, Hofstallgasse, A-5010 Salzburg, Austria
Large Festival Theatre
The New or Large House (Neues or Grosses Festspielhaus) of the Salzburg Festival District in Hofstallgasse was built by Holzmeister in 1956-60, with a massive stage 40m/130ft high cutting deep into the Mönchsberg (its construction involved the removal of more than 55,000 cu. m./72,000 cu.yd of rock). This house, famed for its excellent acoustics, has seating for an audience of 2,170. Five bronze gates, with handles designed by Toni Schneider-Manzell, provide public access from Hofstallgasse. In the entrance hall stand two fountains with figures representing "Music" and "Theater"; in the lower foyer is a steel relief by Rudolf Hoflehner, "Homage to Anton von Webern", and in the foyer outside the first-floor boxes hangs a tapestry designed by Oskar Kokoschka, "Amor and Psyche". There are busts of Richard Strauss, Karl Böhm, Max Reinhardt and Alexander Moissi, who conducted the first performance of Hofmannsthal's "Jedermann" ("Everyman") at the Salzburg Festival. The foyers of the boxes at the side of the circle are decorated with large paintings by Wolfgang Hutter ("From Night to Day") and Karl Plattner ("Salzburg, its Architects and its Music"). At Festival time mainly operas are performed in the Large House. At other times of the year concerts are put on in Mozart Week, as well as the Easter Festivals and other events.
Address: Hofstallgasse 1, A-5010 Salzburg, Austria
House for Mozart (formerly the Small Festival Theater)
The Old or Small House (Altes or Kleines Festspielhaus) of Salzburg's Festival District, facing on to Max-Reinhardt-Platz, was constructed in 1924-25 by the conversion of the former large Winter Riding School. and was further altered in 1926 by Clemens Holzmeister and the frescos by Anton Faistauer added in the Foyer. In 1937-38 Holzmeister carried out a further drastic rebuilding in which the auditorium was turned 180 degrees and enlarged to a total of 1682 seats. Finally the interior was remodeled once again in 1963 (1,304 seats). The overall length of the Small House is some 160m/525ft, and its entrance is marked by a canopy supported on four stone pillars, with a mask group in marble by the sculpture Jakob Adlhart. Adjoining the auditorium is the Orpheus Foyer with a sculpture by Alfred Hrdlicka. The walls of the auditorium are wood-paneled, with a tapestry in the entrance designed by Oskar Kokoschka; the promenade area contains busts of the poet Hugo von Hofmannsthal and the conductors Bruno Walter, Clemens Krauss and Wilhelm Furtwängler.To celebrate the 250th anniversary of Mozart the venue was reopened with the name Haus fur Mozart / House for Mozart.
The famous Salzburg Festival was founded in 1920 by Hugo von Hofmannsthal, Max Reinhardt, Richard Strauss and others, and inaugurated with a performance of Hofmannsthal's "Jedermann" ("Everyman") in the Domplatz. Held annually in late July and August, the festival mounts productions of the highest artistic standard with artists of international reputation and attracts large audiences from all over the world.This annual five week festival includes operas, orchestral, choral and chamber concerts, recitals, dance performances and theatrical productions. An art exhibition is also staged as part of the festival. The events take place in the large and small festival theaters, the Felsenreitschule, the Cathedral, University Church, Landestheater, Mozarteum and St Peter's Church.
Address: Hofstallgasse 1, A-5020 Salzburg, Austria
Rocky Riding School
The Salzburg Felsenreitschule or Sommerreitschule (Rocky Riding School, Summer Riding School) dates back to 1693 (extended in 1968-69); three galleries for spectators have been hewn from the rock. Originally used for riding tournaments and other equestrian events, theatrical and operatic performances are now presented on a stage in the courtyard.
In Salzburg's Max-Reinhardt-Platz can be seen the Fish Fountain (1610), and on the far side of the square the Furtwänglerpark, with the oldest monument to Schiller in Austria (1859). On the northern side of the little park stands the Kollegienkirche (College Church), built by J. B. Fischer von Erlach (1694-1707) for the University: a cruciform church on a centralized plan in mature Baroque style, it has an exciting facade and a high central dome.
Paris Lodron University
To the west of Salzburg's College Church stands the Paris Lodron University, founded in 1964 and occupying the buildings (Studiengebäude,1618-31) of the former Benedictine University which was dissolved in 1810. The Aula Academica, in Early Neo-Classical style, forms part of the central range of buildings. There are new university buildings in the district of Salzburg-Nonntal.
In Sigmundsplatz. to the west of Salzburg's Paris Lodron University, stands the Martstallschwemme or Pferdeschwemme (1695), a handsome horse trough in the form of a fountain, with a group "The Horse-Tamer" by Michael Bernhard Mandl. In years gone by these horse troughs were used to wash the animals down before taking them back to the stables.
Between the Festspielhaus and the Pferdeschwemme in Salzburg runs the Neutor, a tunnel 123m/134yds long cut through the Mönchsberg in 1764-67 to the district of Riedenburg (vehicles and pedestrians; underground garage).
A short distance north of Sigmundsplatz in Salzburg lies the little triangular Bürgerspitalplatz, on the western side of which, leaning against the rock wall of the Mönchsberg, is the three-story arcade of the Hospital (Spital), closed in 1898, which now houses the study collections of the Museum Carolino Augusteum and the Toy Museum.
St Blaise's Church
At an angle to the Bürgerspital in Salzburg's inner city stands the early Gothic Blasiuskirche (St Blaise's), consecrated in 1350 as the hospital church, which contains a carved 15th C. tabernacle.
To the northwest of Salzburg's Bürgerspitalplatz by way of the Gstättentor (1618), on the line of the medieval town walls, and the narrow Gstättengasse (note the baker's shop of 1429 on the right at No. 4) lies Anton-Neumayr-Platz, with the Marienbrunnen (Fountain of the Virgin) of 1691. On the left can be seen the Mönchsberg lift (built 1948), in the entrance hall of which are mosaics depicting views of Salzburg in 1553 and 1818.
House of Nature
From Anton-Neumayr-Platz, Salzburg's Museumsplatz extends northward to the Franz-Josef-Kai on the banks of the Salzach, with the Haus der Natur on the left and the Museum Carolino Augusteum on the right. The Haus der Natur, in a former Ursuline convent, graphically illustrates in its 80 rooms all aspects of nature and geology as well as the conquest and use of outer space: the animals of the prehistoric world, with full size models of dinosaurs and reptiles, an aquarium, display of coral and one devoted to Tibet, special exhibitions of the mineralogy and geology of the Salzburg region, the animals of Europe and other continents (including skeletons), a reptile zoo, the Space Hall with a diorama of the landing on the moon, models of space rockets, a space city of the future and explanations of how the universe was formed. Also forming part of the old Ursuline convent is the Markuskirche (Church of St Mark), built by J. B. Fischer von Erlach between 1699-1705. A short way to the northwest stands the Klausentor (Gate; 1612).
Address: Museumsplatz 5, A-5020 Salzburg, Austria
Museum Carolino Augusteum
Salzburg's Museum Carolino Augusteum, named after the Empress Carolina Augusta, contains a wide range of material of artistic and cultural interest (carved altars of the 15th and 16th C., applied and decorative art, musical instruments, coins, Salzburg paintings from the 15th C. to the present day, a collection of graphic art, etc.).
Address: Museumsplatz 1, Austria
Old Town District (near the river)
Mozart's BirthplaceFrom Universitätsplatz in Salzburg a number of passages (known as "Durchhäuser" or "running between the houses") weave their way northward to the old world Getreidegasse (pedestrian precinct), a busy shopping street lined with burghers' houses dating from the 15th-18th C. There are many wrought iron shop and inn signs to be seen, as well as beautiful courtyards; on No. 3 is a tablet commemorating the 19th C. politician August Bebel, who worked here as an apprentice turner in 1859-60.
No. 9 Getreidegasse in Salzburg is the house where Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born on January 27, 1756 (d. December 5, 1791 in Vienna). The rooms on the third floor which were occupied by the Mozart family are now a museum (mementos, including the young Mozart's violin, portraits, a clavichord of 1760, a pianoforte of 1780, scores, etc.). On the second floor is an interesting exhibition, "Mozart in the Theater", with illuminated miniature stages. Mozart's father Leopold, who occupied the house from 1747 to 1753, was an excellent violinist and music teacher, who from 1762 onwards took Wolfgang and his sister "Nannerl", five years older, on concert tours throughout Europe, when the youthful musician gained great acclaim for his virtuoso piano playing.
Address: Getreidegasse 9, A-5020 Salzburg, Austria
At the eastern end of Salzburg's Getreidegasse lies the Kranzmarkt with the old Rathaus (Town Hall). Around the Rathaus stand many old burghers' houses, which were already reaching heights of four or five stories in medieval times, with broken facades and a low blank wall running along the base of the roof.
The Alter Markt, rising slightly towards the south of Salzburg's Old Town district, dates from the end of the 13th C. At No. 6 is the Court Pharmacy (Hofapotheke), established in 1591, with 18th C. furnishings; No. 9 is the well- known Cafe Tomaselli. In the middle of the Alter Markt stands the Marktbrunnen or Florianbrunnen (Market Fountain or St Florian's Fountain), with an octagonal basin (1687) and a beautiful spiral grille (Renaissance, 1583).
To the east of Salzburg's Alter Markt other narrow and twisting lanes - including the Judengasse leading to Mozartplatz - typify the old town, which extends beyond Mozartplatz into the Kaiviertel ("Quay Quarter").
Pfeifergasse No. 11 in Salzburg's Old Town district was occupied in 1525 by the philosopher and physician Paracelsus, who died in the neighboring Kaigasse (No. 8). At the end of Pfeifergasse, on the right, stands the Chiemseehof, originally built in 1305 and much altered in later periods, which was the residence of the Prince Bishops of Chiemsee until 1806 and is now the seat of the provincial government; it has an arcaded courtyard decorated with coats of arms. Obliquely across the street stands the Kajetanerkirche (St Cajetan's Church), in Italian Baroque style (by Casper Zuccalli, 1685-1700), with no tower but with a massive dome; the interior has luxuriant stucco decoration of about 1730.
A short way to the east of Salzburg's Chiemseehof, at Hellbrunner Strasse 3 beyond the Law Courts, can be found the Künstlerhaus (Artists' House), with periodic special exhibitions.
Palace and Palace Concerts
The Salzburg Palace houses the city's finest concert Halls, including the Mirabell Palace Marble Hall and the Prince Archbishop's Residence, where even Mozart himself performed.The Palace was first open for public concerts in 1954, and has since hosted over 10,000 performances.Over 200 concerts are scheduled on average every year, including special events such as Christmas and New Year's performances and various competitions.
Address: Griesgasse 6/1, A-5020 Salzburg, Austria