Inner City, Salzburg
The very heart of the Salzburg old town on the left bank of the Salzach is the Residenzplatz, with the Residenzbrunnen of Untersberg marble, the largest and finest Baroque fountain this side of the Alps, the work of an Italian sculptor (1656-61). It stands 15m/50ft high, with figures of bold horses, Atlas figures bearing dishes, dolphins and, crowning the whole, a Triton with a conch shell.
Opposite the Salzburg Residenz is the Neugebäude (New Building), erected in 1592-1602 as the Archbishop's guest-house and enlarged about 1670, which now contains provincial government offices and the Head Post Office (southern end). The tower houses a carillon (Glockenspiel) of 35 bells (1702), which plays Mozart tunes three times daily (at 7 a.m., 11 a.m. and 6 p.m.; conducted tours begin at 10.45 a.m. and 5.45 p.m.), when the Hornwerk organ (the "Salzburg Bull") in the Hohensalzburg responds with a chorale.
St Michael's Church
On the northern side of the Salzburg Residenzplatz, at the corner of Mozartplatz, stands the charming little Michaelskirche (St Michael's Church, 1767-76; basically Romanesque but with many alterations); it was the town's parish church from the eighth to the 12th C.
A prominent building in Salzburg's skyline, the Cathedral was built between 1652 and 1657. The Church features a distinctly Italian style of architecture.
St Peter's Church
Salzburg's St Peter's Church (Stiftskirche St Peter) was built in 1130-43, altered in 1605-25 and decorated in Roccoco style between 1757 and 1783. The helm tower also dates from the latter period. Inside the porch under the tower is the Romanesque west doorway (c. 1240), with sculpture in the tympanum; the Roccoco door dates from 1765. The interior, in which the plan of the Romanesque basilica can still be detected, contains many monuments of great interest. In the third chapel behind the altar is the rock-hewn tomb of St Rupert, with an epitaph of 1444, and in the fourth chapel will be found the monuments of Mozart's sister Marianne ("Nannerl"), who died in 1829 as Baroness Berchtold zu Sonnenburg, and of J. M. Haydn, the brother of Joseph. By the choir screen stand two bronze candelabra of 1609. All but two of the altarpieces on the 16 marble altars were painted by Martin Johann Schmidt of Krems, known as "Kremser Schmidt" (1718-1801). The Lady Chapel (Marienkapelle; not open to the public) of 1319 on the northern side of the church contains a stone figure of the Virgin dating from the same period as the chapel, Early Gothic frescos and later frescos of 1755.
To the north of St Peter's Church in Salzburg's Inner City stands the Franciscan Church (Franziskanerkirche), which was the town's parish church (dedicated to the Virgin) until 1635. Notable features of the exterior are the high roof of the choir and the tower on the southern side (1468-98) with its Neo-Gothic helm roof of 1867. The dark Romanesque nave (13th C.) contrasts with the high, light Gothic choir (by Hans Stettheimer, 1408 to after 1450). In front of a ring of Baroque chapels (1606-1704) stands the high altar (1709; probably by J. B. Fischer von Erlach), with a carved Madonna by Michael Pacher (1498; the Child is 19th C.). In the central chapel behind the altar is a winged marble altar (1561) from the old Cathedral. Opposite the church, to the south, lies the Franciscan Friary.
From the Salzburg Franciscan Church it is only a short distance to the Rupertinum, a building in Wiener-Philharmoniker-Gasse (No. 9). This house, built by Archbishop Paris Lodron as the "Collegium Rupertinum", now houses the Rupertinum Collection of 20th-century painting, graphic art, sculpture and photography. Particularly worthy of mention are the almost complete collection of prints by Kokoschka, as well as work by Kirchner, Nolde, Heckel, Kubin and Schiele, and a photograph gallery.
In Salzburg's Max-Reinhardt-Platz can be seen the Fish Fountain (1610), and on the far side of the square the Furtwänglerpark, with the oldest monument to Schiller in Austria (1859). On the northern side of the little park stands the Kollegienkirche (College Church), built by J. B. Fischer von Erlach (1694-1707) for the University: a cruciform church on a centralized plan in mature Baroque style, it has an exciting facade and a high central dome.
Paris Lodron University
To the west of Salzburg's College Church stands the Paris Lodron University, founded in 1964 and occupying the buildings (Studiengebäude,1618-31) of the former Benedictine University which was dissolved in 1810. The Aula Academica, in Early Neo-Classical style, forms part of the central range of buildings. There are new university buildings in the district of Salzburg-Nonntal.
In Sigmundsplatz. to the west of Salzburg's Paris Lodron University, stands the Martstallschwemme or Pferdeschwemme (1695), a handsome horse trough in the form of a fountain, with a group "The Horse-Tamer" by Michael Bernhard Mandl. In years gone by these horse troughs were used to wash the animals down before taking them back to the stables.
Between the Festspielhaus and the Pferdeschwemme in Salzburg runs the Neutor, a tunnel 123m/134yds long cut through the Mönchsberg in 1764-67 to the district of Riedenburg (vehicles and pedestrians; underground garage).
A short distance north of Sigmundsplatz in Salzburg lies the little triangular Bürgerspitalplatz, on the western side of which, leaning against the rock wall of the Mönchsberg, is the three-story arcade of the Hospital (Spital), closed in 1898, which now houses the study collections of the Museum Carolino Augusteum and the Toy Museum.
Opening hours: 9am-5pm; Closed: Mon
St Blaise's Church
At an angle to the Bürgerspital in Salzburg's inner city stands the early Gothic Blasiuskirche (St Blaise's), consecrated in 1350 as the hospital church, which contains a carved 15th C. tabernacle.
To the northwest of Salzburg's Bürgerspitalplatz by way of the Gstättentor (1618), on the line of the medieval town walls, and the narrow Gstättengasse (note the baker's shop of 1429 on the right at No. 4) lies Anton-Neumayr-Platz, with the Marienbrunnen (Fountain of the Virgin) of 1691. On the left can be seen the Mönchsberg lift (built 1948), in the entrance hall of which are mosaics depicting views of Salzburg in 1553 and 1818.
House of Nature
From Anton-Neumayr-Platz, Salzburg's Museumsplatz extends northward to the Franz-Josef-Kai on the banks of the Salzach, with the Haus der Natur on the left and the Museum Carolino Augusteum on the right. The Haus der Natur, in a former Ursuline convent, graphically illustrates in its 80 rooms all aspects of nature and geology as well as the conquest and use of outer space: the animals of the prehistoric world, with full size models of dinosaurs and reptiles, an aquarium, display of coral and one devoted to Tibet, special exhibitions of the mineralogy and geology of the Salzburg region, the animals of Europe and other continents (including skeletons), a reptile zoo, the Space Hall with a diorama of the landing on the moon, models of space rockets, a space city of the future and explanations of how the universe was formed. Also forming part of the old Ursuline convent is the Markuskirche (Church of St Mark), built by J. B. Fischer von Erlach between 1699-1705. A short way to the northwest stands the Klausentor (Gate; 1612).
Address: Museumsplatz 5, A-5020 Salzburg, Austria
Opening hours: 9am-5pm
Entrance fee in EUR: Adult €4.50, Senior €4.00, Group discounts €4.00, Child €2.50
Guides: Guided tour available as optional extra.
Museum Carolino Augusteum
Salzburg's Museum Carolino Augusteum, named after the Empress Carolina Augusta, contains a wide range of material of artistic and cultural interest (carved altars of the 15th and 16th C., applied and decorative art, musical instruments, coins, Salzburg paintings from the 15th C. to the present day, a collection of graphic art, etc.).
Palace and Palace Concerts
The Salzburg Palace houses the city's finest concert Halls, including the Mirabell Palace Marble Hall and the Prince Archbishop's Residence, where even Mozart himself performed.The Palace was first open for public concerts in 1954, and has since hosted over 10,000 performances.Over 200 concerts are scheduled on average every year, including special events such as Christmas and New Year's performances and various competitions.
Map of Salzburg Attractions