Shenyang Tourist Attractions

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Shenyang is the most important center for trade, industry and culture in the northeast of China. It is an important engineering center and has chemical and textile works.

Northern Imperial Tomb (Mausoleum of Light)

Also known as the ''Mausoleum of Light'' (Zhaoling), the Northern Imperial Tomb is a popular place with day visitors. It is situated in the north of the city in the middle of a park. The architectural style represents a successful combination of the traditionally arranged Chinese burial sites and the castle-like buildings of the early Qing period - a masterpiece of an amalgamation of Han and Manchurian art. Buried here is Huang Taiji (reigned 1626-35) and his wife. The building work on the 180,000sq.m/215,280sq.yd tomb site was begun in 1643 and completed eight years later. It is the best preserved and largest of the three imperial mausoleums in and around Shenyang.
The ''Path of Souls'' is lined with stone columns and two stone sculptures of horses, depicting the emperor's two favorite animals.

Imperial Palace

The magnificent and imposing 60,000sq.m/71,760sq.yd Imperial Palace dating from the early Qing era, is situated in the east of Shenyang. It is, after the Imperial Palace in Beijing, the second largest completely preserved palace complex in China. The building work took over ten years to complete (1625-36). The complex served as an imperial palace to both of the first Qing emperors, Nurhachi (1559-1626) and Huang Taiji (1592-1643). The palace complex includes several courtyards, around which are grouped numerous buildings, and is separated into eastern, central, and western sections.

Hall of Exaulted Government

The Hall of Exaulted Government (Chongzheng Dian), built before 1632, is the center of the middle section and houses the imperial throne and a screen with a gilded dragon as a bas-relief. It served as the audience building to the second Qing emperor Huang Taiji, and was also used for carrying out daily business.

Phoenix Tower

The three-story Phoenix Tower (Fenghuang Lou) (1627) behind the Hall of Exaulted Governments was used for banquets.

Pavilion of Clarity and Rest

The Palace of Clarity and Rest (Qingning Gong), built in 1625, housed the imperial couple's sleeping chambers and sacrificial rooms.

Pavilion of the Source of Culture

The Pavilion of the Source of Culture (Wenshuo Ge) in the rear section of the western wing functioned as the emperor's private study. The only complete edition of the Siku Quanshu, a Chinese encyclopedia which appeared in 1772 in only seven editions, was previously kept here.

Hall of the Great Government

Situated at the far end of the eastern wing of the Imperial Palace, The Hall of the Great Government (Dazheng Dian) is the oldest palace building and dates back to the early 17th C. Although the octagonal building is reminiscent of a nomadic tent, the building otherwise reveals many features of Chinese architecture. Held here were the most important ceremonies concerning the emperor.

Ten Princely Pavilions

In the Ten Princely Pavilions (Shiwang Ting), which are set in two rows in front of the Hall of the Great Government, were the offices and reception halls of the ten leading princes of the Qing era, those of the princes of the right wing, the princes of the left wing, and the eight banner commanders who led the Qing army. Some of the buildings in the complex house the palace museum.

Steam Engine Museum

In the largest steam engine museum in China various types of steam engines are displayed in an area of barely 10,000sq.m/11,960sq.yd. The engines date from the beginning of the century to the 1950s, and come from several countries. Visitors can ride on one of the engines and view a locomotive and wagon factory, and a rail service headquarters.

Surroundings

Eastern Imperial Tomb (Mausoleum of Good Fortune)

The Eastern Imperial Tomb, also known as the ''Mausoleum of Good Fortune'' (Fu Ling), lies on a hill 11km (7mi) to the northeast of the Shenyang. It is the resting place of the first Qing emperor Nurhachi and his wife. The necropolis, built between 1629 and 1651, covers an area of 194,800sq.m/232,980sq.yd, the style of the structure corresponding to the Northern Imperial Tomb. The beautiful scenic surroundings add to the particular charm of the monument.

Battle Field of Mukden

Some 20km/13mi south of the city is the battle field of Mukden, where the decisive fighting took place in the war between Japan and Russia (February 25th-March 10th 1905).
The Russian army, under the command of General Kuropatkin, consisted of the First Army under General Linewitsch on the left flank, the Second Army under General Baron Kaulbars on the right flank to the west, and the Third Army under General Baron Bilderling in the center. In all there were 310,000 men with 1100 guns. Their strongly established position was about 150km/93mi long and about 20-25km/12-15mi wide.
The Japanese forces, under the command of Marshall Oyama, had dug themselves in deeply opposite the Russian position. They consisted of five armies: the First Army under General Kurok, the Second Army under General Oku with reserves, and the Fourth Army under General Nodzu in the center, the Third Army under General Nogi on the right flank to the west, and the Fifth Army under General Kawamura on the right wing to the east. In total there were 300,000 men at the most, with 892 guns. The front was about 80km/50mi to 100km/62mi wide and about 30km/19mi to 50km/31mi deep.
Towards the end of February 1905 the Japanese attacked the Russian left flank, simultaneously their Third Army began to surround the Russian right wing. Until March 1st 1905 they achieved no particular advantage, then the Russians were forced back even further. On March 7th 1905 Kuropatkin admitted defeat, and ordered a retreat, which partly degenerated into a rout.
The losses to the Russian amounted to over 87,000 men, of whom 29,000 were taken prisoner; the Japanese lost an estimated 67,000.

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