10 Top-Rated Tourist Attractions in Japan
Many first-time visitors to Japan are often surprised to learn that as one of the world's most advanced industrialized nations, this relatively small Asian country also boasts a rich and fascinating history that dates back thousands of years. Indeed, long before many of Europe's most spectacular cathedrals were built, Japan's Shinto and Buddhist temples were already well-established and drawing pilgrims and patrons for their often elaborate designs and décor. At the same time, the country was already perfecting the skills and trades that would set it on the path to riches, from fine porcelains and ceramics to textiles such as silk. Much of this rich tradition has, despite wars and natural devastation, been preserved (or rebuilt), and these days, a visit to Japan is a memorable adventure.
1 Mount Fuji
Without a doubt Japan's most recognizable landmark, majestic Mount Fuji (Fuji-san) is also the country's highest mountain peak, towering 3,776 meters over an otherwise largely flat landscape to the south and east, tall enough to be seen from Tokyo more than 100 kilometers away. Mount Fuji has for centuries been celebrated in art and literature, and is now considered so important an icon that UNESCO recognized its world cultural significance in 2013. Part of the Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park, Mount Fuji is climbed by more than a million people each summer as an act of pilgrimage that culminates in watching the sunrise from its summit. While some still choose to begin their climb from the base, the majority of climbers now start from above the halfway mark, at the 5th Station, resulting in a more manageable six or so hour ascent. Of course, for many, simply viewing the mountain from the distance, or from the comfort of a speeding train, is enough to say "been there, done that."
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2 Imperial Tokyo
Tokyo's most famous landmark, the Imperial Palace, with its beautiful 17th-century parks surrounded by walls and moats, is a must-see when visiting the nation's capital. Don't be put off by the fact that the majority of the palace is closed to the public (it's still in use by the Imperial family), as there is still enough to see simply by strolling the grounds. In addition to the many fine views of the palace from numerous points in the surrounding parkland - including the famous Nijubashi Bridge, or "double bridge," so named for its watery reflection - visitors are permitted into the East Higashi-Gyoen Garden, one of the few areas open to the public. Another must-see for tourists visiting Tokyo is the famous Ginza shopping district, home to Kabuki-za Theatre with its Kabuki performances, as well as the Shimbashi Enbujo Theatre with its traditional Azuma-odori dances and Bunraku performances.
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3 Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park
While little need be said here of the horrors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima in August 1945, much can be said of the incredible efforts this vibrant city has made to commemorate the many victims of the world's first nuclear attack, and perhaps even more importantly, the symbol of lasting peace Hiroshima has since become. Visited by more than a million people each year, many from overseas, Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park (Hiroshima Heiwa Kinen Kōen) lies at the epicenter of the atomic blast in what was once a bustling part of the city and includes a number of important monuments, memorials, and museums relating to the events of that fateful day. In addition to the grounds and gardens with their colorful cherry blossoms, the park's highlights include the Peace Memorial Museum with its numerous exhibits dealing with the issue of world peace, and the Memorial Cenotaph and the Flame of Peace, as well as the Atom Bomb Dome, the ruins of an administrative building that lay at the center of the explosion.
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4 Historic Kyoto
One of Japan's most visited cities, lovely Kyoto - one of the few cities in the country to be spared the devastation of WWII - attracts more than 10 million visitors annually to explore its fine old streets and architecture, much of it unchanged since the Imperial family took up residence here more than 1,000 years ago. Even then, the city was Japan's most important cultural center, a legacy that continues with its many museums and art galleries, each bursting with important sculptures, paintings, and other art forms. Highlights of Kyoto's Buddhist-influenced architecture include its many well-preserved temples, 30 of which are still in use, and important structures such as the 14th-century Golden Pavilion (Kinkaku-ji), famous for its exquisite gold-leaf-clad exterior. Be sure to also visit Nijo Castle, a 17th-century fortress that has retained its original walls, towers, and moat; its beautiful gates; and its palace with fine interior décor. Also worth a visit is the original Kyoto Imperial Palace (Kyoto-gosho), built in AD 794 and one of the city's most visited historic sites. Finally, no visit to Kyoto is complete without spending time exploring the Arashiyama Bamboo Grove, a beautiful area of tall bamboo just a few minutes' walk from the town center.
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5 The Island Shrine of Itsukushima
Just a short ferry ride from mainland Hiroshima is the island of Miyajima, famous the world over as Japan's Shrine Island. Covering an area of 30 square kilometers in Hiroshima Bay, Miyajima is best known as the home of the Itsukushima Shrine, a Shinto temple dedicated to the Princess daughters of the wind god Susanoo. Dating from the eighth century, the majority of the shrine's buildings rise out of the waters of a small bay supported only by piles. The effect at high tide is simply stunning, making these structures - including the famous Great Floating Gate (O-Torii) - appear as if they're floating on water. Linked together by walkways and bridges, it's a fascinating place to explore, in particular its larger halls such as the exquisite Honden (Main Hall), the Offerings Hall (Heiden), the Prayer Hall (Haiden), and the Hall of a Thousand Mats (Senjokaku). Another notable feature is the shrine's stage where visitors are entertained with traditional dances and musical performances. Also worth exploring are the island's exquisite grounds and gardens, home to wild deer and numerous bird colonies.
6 Temple City: Historic Nara
For centuries the hub of Japanese culture, the lovely unspoiled city of Nara is home to a large number of historic buildings, along with important national treasures and works of art. In addition to its many historic streets, the city boasts numerous important old temples, including the magnificent seventh-century Kofuku-ji Temple, and perhaps the best known of the Seven Great Temples of Nara, the splendid eighth-century Todai-ji (Great East Temple), famous for its huge bronze statue of the Great Buddha (Daibutsu), cast here in AD 749. Also of interest in Todai-ji are its Great South Gate (Nandaimon), a two-story structure borne on 18 columns with two Nio statues standing eight meters tall and guarding the temple entrance, and the Hall of the Great Buddha, the world's largest timber building.
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7 Osaka Castle
Built in 1586 by famous Japanese warrior and politician Toyotomi Hideyoshi, Osaka Castle (Ōsaka-jō) was at the time the largest and most important fortress in the country. Although destroyed and rebuilt a number of times since, the present structure, built in 1931, remains true to the original. Highlights of a visit include the huge five-story, 42-meter-tall main tower built on an imposing 14-meter-tall stone base and home to a number of displays detailing the history of the castle and the city (be sure to visit the top floor for its superb views over Osaka). Also of interest in Osaka Castle Park is the Hokoku Shrine, while Osaka's best-known temple, Shitennō-ji, is also worth visiting and dates back to AD 59. Notable as Japan's first Buddhist temple, this lovely shrine features a five-story pagoda along with a number of other exquisitely decorated buildings including the Golden Pavilion (Kondō) with its fine statues and paintings, the Lecture Hall (Kōdō), and a lovely covered corridor linking three of the site's gates.
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8 Chūbu-Sangaku National Park and the Japanese Alps
Japan boasts a number of outstanding areas of natural beauty, many of them designated as national parks or, in some cases, UNESCO World Heritage Sites. One of the country's most spectacular parks is Chūbu-Sangaku National Park in the center of Honshu, incorporating in its northern and central regions the group of mountains collectively referred to as the Hida Mountains, or Japanese Alps. The region contains some of the highest peaks in the country, including Hotaka at 3,190 meters, and Yari at 3,180 meters. Similar in many ways to the Alps of Central Europe, both in the character of the landscape and in its abundance of snow in winter, the Japan Alps attract large numbers of walkers and climbers in summer and skiers in winter. Of particular interest is the park's abundance of flora and fauna, including the rare ptarmigan and mountain antelopes found at higher altitudes. The park's many hot springs also draw visitors and led to the development of various spas and holiday resorts, the best known being Kamikōchi.
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9 The Atsuta Shrine, Nagoya
The Atsuta Shrine, in the heart of the city of Nagoya, is the most important Shinto shrine in Japan attracting more than five million visitors each year. Established in the first century, this religious site is famous for its preserved Imperial insignia, the "grass-mowing sword" (kusanagi-no-tsurugi), one of only three in the country. Also of interest are its principal shrine, Hongu, surrounded by an enclosing wall, and the treasury with its numerous works of art including old and modern paintings, ceramics, jewelry, and traditional masks. While in Nagoya, be sure to also visit Nagoya Castle, a splendid moated complex built in 1612 boasting a 48-meter-high main tower that is famous for its two gilded dolphins (shachi), its museum containing art treasures from the former palace, and its spectacular views over the city and the Nobi Plain.
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10 Fukuoka's Castle and Ancient Festivals
One of the few surviving examples of the once prolific and majestic hilltop homes preferred by Shoguns and city rulers, Fukuoka Castle (Fukuoka-jō) is one of the highlights of a visit to Fukuoka. Once part of a massive complex that covered an area of some 47,000 square meters, this beautiful castle still impresses with its size and its position on a tall foundation overlooking the Naka River. Fukuoka is also well known for its many events and festivals, in particular the Hakata Gion Yamakasa, a famous two-week long, 700-year-old celebration held each July that draws millions of visitors from across the country to its colorful parades, as well as its traditional races and costumes. The city is not without its modern attractions, too, including Canal City Hakata, a-city-within-the-city complete with a canal running through the complex along with great shops, hotels, restaurants, and a theater.
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