The surroundings of Istanbul include the suburbs of Eyüp and Üsküdar.
Outside the land walls of Istanbul, at the north end of the Golden Horn, lies the suburb of Eyüp, with Istanbul's holiest shrine, the Eyüp Mosque, built in 1459 and subsequently much altered. Here a new Sultan was girded with his sword. Facing the entrance to the mosque is the Türbe of Eyüp, the Prophet's Standard-bearer, who was killed during the first Arab siege of Constantinople (678).On the hill above the mosque, to the northeast, is a picturesque cemetery. Each grave has two gravestones, and until 1926 the headstone of a man's grave bore a fez or turban. From higher up, above the old Convent of the Whirling Dervishes, there is a magnificent view of both sides of the Golden Horn.2km/1.25mi east of Eyüp, the Sweet Waters of Europe flow into the Golden Horn. This is still a favorite resort of the people of Istanbul.
Üsküdar (Leander's Tower)
The best way to get to Üsküdar is to take the car ferry which plies regularly across the Bosporus, here 2km/1.25mi from the Kabatas landing-stage (2km/1.25mi northeast of the Galata Bridge). On an islet just off the Asiatic shore stands Leander's Tower (in Turkish Kiz Kulesi, "Maiden's Tower"), 30m/100ft high, with a signal station and a lighthouse.Istanbul's outlying district of Üsküdar, traditionally known as Scutari, on the Asiatic side of the Bosporus, is the city's largest suburb. With its handsome old mosques, winding lanes and weathered brown timber houses (particularly between the landing-stage and the large cemetery) it has preserved more of its traditional Oriental character than the Old Town of Istanbul. The town, known in antiquity as Chrysopolis, was one of the earliest Greek settlements on the Bosporus. It was much more exposed to attack by foreign conquerors than was Constantinople with its defensive situation and strong walls, but it was able to draw economic advantage from its exposed situation: until 1800 it was the terminus of the caravan routes which brought the treasures of the East to Constantinople, from which they were sent to Europe.
Üsküdar - Büyük Cami
At the landing-stage (on the left) is the Büyük Cami (Great Mosque) also known as the Iskele Camii or Mihrimah Camii, which was built by Süleiman the Magnificent in 1547 for his daughter Mihrimah. A little way south is the Yeni Valide Camii, built by Sultan Ahmet III in 1707-10.Between the two mosques a road branches off on the left to Baglarbasi, Kisikli and the suburb of Bulgurluköy, 5km/3mi away. 1km/0.75mi north rises the Hill of Büyük Camlica (268m/879ft), from which there are superb views of Istanbul, the Bosporus and the Sea of Marmara; the views are no less impressive at night.
Üsküdar - Cemetery
The cemetery (Karacaahmet Mezarligi) on the hill southeast of Üsküdar (1.5km/1mi) from landing-stage; buses) is the largest in the East, with ancient cypresses and large numbers of marble tombstones. At its north end is an old Convent of the Howling Dervishes.
Üsküdar - Selimiye Camii
West of the cemetery in Üsküdar, near the sea, is the Selimiye Camii, built by Selim III; to the southwest are the Selimiye Barracks, a huge complex with four corner towers in which Florence Nightingale established her hospital during the Crimean War.
Üsküdar - Haydarpasa
Eastward from the Selimiye Camii in Üsküdar, reached by turning right along Tibbiye Caddesi, passing a large school (1934), we reach the large suburb of Haydarpasa, with port installations and, directly on the Sea of Marmara, the handsome terminus of the Anatolian Railway.
Üsküdar - Kadiköy
To the south of the railroad lines lies the suburb of Kadiköy, on the site of the ancient Greek city of Kalchedon (Chalcedon), founded about 675 B.C., which in Roman times was capital of the province of Bithynia and later the see of an archbishop. The Fourth Ecumenical Council met here in 451.
Princes' Islands, in the northeastern corner of the Sea of Marmara, offers top-notch water sport facilities and beautiful scenery. It is also free of cars with horse-drawn carriages offering the main mode of transport.
Pendik, a few kilometers southeast of Kartal (until recently a town in its own right but now a district of Istanbul), lies on an attractive though densely populated bay on the north side of the Gulf of Izmet. In antiquity it was called Panteichion and was a fortress on the road from Kalchedon (Kadiköy) to Nikomedeia (Izmit). It was here, in the sixth century, that Belisarius (d. 565), Justinian's Byzantine general, spent the rest of his days after falling from grace.
This small coastal town, with few attractions apart from its delightful situation in Silivri Bay on the Sea of Marmara some 70km/45mi west of Istanbul, was the termination of the so-called "Long Wall", built between 507 and 512 during the reign of Anastasios to defend Byzantium against attack by the Bulgars. Remains of the 45km/28mile-long fortification, 5m/16ft high and 3.5m/11.5ft thick, can be seen along the line of the former road from Skyllaion (between Ormanli and Podima) on the Black Sea, westward through Karacaköy, then southwest through Tahtaköprü and Sinekli and from there southwards to Fenerköy and Silivri.
Next to the Faith Forest is Maslak Kasirlari which the main buildings is open to public as a museum and a cafe in the conservatory. The park is planted with various deciduous and evergreen trees and shrubs which enclosed yew, roses, rhododendrons and Magnolia grandiflora. The oldest trees include limes, alder, nettle trees, oaks, horse chestnuts, field maples, Austrian pine, sycamores and hornbeam.
The Summer Palace of the Khedive
The Summer Palace of the Khedive was built in 1900 and the tower is one of the landmarks on the Ariatic side of the Bosporus. From the main gate, there is an avenue lined with silver lime and horse chestnuts. In front of the palace is a rose garden with colorful groups of hydrangeas on both sides. The palace has converted into a hotel now.
Map of Istanbul Attractions