The Basque provinces of Guipúzcoa, Vizcaya and Alava occupy the eastern part of the Cantabrian Mountains, between the valley of the Nervión, which reaches the sea at Bilbao, and the Pyrenees. This is an upland region of medium height, with only a few peaks rising higher, like the Peña de Gorbea. The coastal hills are separated from the main ridge of the Cantabrian Mountains by longitudinal valleys through which east-west traffic passes. Under the influence of the moist north and north-west winds this coastal tract produces a rich growth of vegetation. At the higher altitudes there are forests of oak, beech and chestnut or, where these have been destroyed, a dense growth of bracken or plantations of pines and eucalyptus. The hills and valleys are covered with meadows, fields of maize and groves of walnuts and fruit-trees. The northern slopes of the Cantabrina Mountains are a pleasant region, with a climate which is agreeable even in summer and a landscape of lush green fields and picturesque Basque farms. The coast is particularly attractive, with cliffs frequently rising to over 300m/100ft and little fishing towns, many of which have developed into popular seaside resorts.
Basque Country, in northern Spain, is home to a number of famous cities, including San Sebastian, Bilbao, and Pamplona.