Bavarian State Opera House, Munich
Bavarian State Opera HouseThe National Theater, Munich's world-famous opera house, originally known as the Königliches Hof und Nationaltheater (Royal Court and National Theater), was Commissioned by King Max I Joseph and built by Karl von Fischer in Neo-Classical style in 1811-18. Burned down in 1823, it reopened in 1825. It was destroyed again during the Second World War, when the Opera moved to the Prinzregententheater, but was rebuilt in its original form and reopened in 1963. Several more years of renovation were completed in 1988.The portico with its Corinthian columns and the two triangular pediments are reminiscent of a Greek temple. In the pediment of the portico itself are Apollo and the Muses (by Brenninger, 1972), in the pediment of the tall main structure a colored glass mosaic on a gold ground depicting Pegasus with the Horae (by Ludwig Schwanthaler). The interior is also predominantly Greek in style - the entrance lobby Doric, the staircase Ionic, the Royal Foyer Corinthian. The auditorium with its five tiers of seating is decorated in red, ivory, dove-blue and gold.During the reign of Ludwig II, a fervent admirer of Wagner, the first performances of "Tristan und Isolde" (1865), "Die Meistersinger" (1868), "Rheingold" (1869) and "Die Walküre" (1870) were given in the National Theater. Among the conductors who have directed operas here have been Hans von Bülow, Bruno Walter, Clemens Krauss, Hans Knappenrtsbusch and Joseph Keilberth.The National Theater ranks among the world's leading opera houses. The most brilliant event in the theatrical season is the Munich Opera Festival, held annually in summer.