Tomb of Sethos I, Valley of the Kings
No. 17, the Tomb of Sethos I, also known as Belzoni's Tomb after its discoverer (October 1817). Like Nos 11 and 14, it has a total length of some 330ft/100m. The reliefs are far superior in quality and state of preservation to any others in the Valley of the Kings, rivalling those of Abydos. A flight of wooden steps descends to the entrance.
Tomb of Sethos I - Corridors
First corridor, left hand wall: the King in the presence of the falcon headed sun god Harakhty; the title picture of the "Praising of Re" (the sun, with a scarab and the ram headed sun god, between a snake, a crocodile and two cows' heads); the text of the "Praising", which is continued on the right hand wall. On the ceiling are hovering vultures. Second corridor (staircase), left hand wall: above, in a niche, the sun god in 37 different forms (from the "Praising of Re"); below the niche, texts from the "Book of what is in the Underworld", continued on the right hand wall; on the right and left of the staircase Nephthys and Isis. Third corridor, left hand wall: the sun's journey during the fifth hour of night (fifth part of the "Book of what is in the Underworld"); right hand wall, the sun's journey during the fourth hour of night (fourth part of the "Book of what is in the Underworld"). Antechamber: the King in presence of various gods.
Tomb of Sethos I - First Pillared Chamber
First pillared chamber, left hand walls: the sun's journey through the fourth division of the Underworld (fourth part of the "Book of the Gates"). At the beginning is the fourth gateway, guarded by the snake Tekehor; then, in the middle row, the solar barque drawn by four men; in front of it spirits with a coiled snake, three ibis headed gods and nine other gods ("the spirits of men who are in the Underworld"); on the right a god with a scepter. Upper row: men greeting the god, with others holding a coil of rope. Bottom row: left, Horus; in front of him representatives of the four chief races of men known to the Egyptians - four Egyptians, four Asiatics with pointed beards and colored loincloths, four Negroes (Kushites) and four Libyans, identified by the feathers on their heads and tattooed bodies; farther along genii with a snake bearing the hieroglyph for "time", etc.Right hand walls: the sun's journey through the fifth division of the Underworld (fifth part of the "Book of the Gates"). In the middle row is the solar barque drawn by four men and preceded by demons. Upper row: 12 gods with forked sticks, 12 gods with a snake from which human heads project and 12 gods with a cord attached to a mummy. Bottom row: a god leaning on a staff, 12 mummies on a bier in the form of a snake, etc. In the center of the rear wall is Osiris enthroned; in front of him the King conducted by the falcon headed Horus, behind him Hathor. On the pillars the King is depicted in presence of various deities.
Tomb of Sethos I - Antechamber
From the first pillared chamber a flight of 18 steps, on the left, lead down by way of two corridors with representations of the "opening of the mouth" ceremony into an antechamber, with fine reliefs of the King in the presence of various gods of the dead (Osiris, Isis, Harsiesis, Hathor, Anubis, etc.).
Tomb of Sethos I - Second Pillared Chamber
A short flight of steps leads into the second pillared chamber, with two pillars. The scenes and inscriptions in this room are merely sketched out in red and black on stucco. On the pillars the King is depicted before various deities. Left hand walls: the sun's journey during the ninth hour of night (9th part of the "Book of what is in the Underworld"). Middle row: the solar barque; in front of it 12 star gods with oars; three sacred animals (a cow, a ram, a human headed bird),a mummy standing upright, the guardian god of the offerings. Upper row: 12 genii crouching on curious stands and 12 women. Bottom row (partly destroyed): fire breathing snakes; men with sticks; a mummy.The scenes on the rear wall, continuing on part of the right hand wall, show the sun's journey during the tenth hour of night (10th part of the "Book of what is in the Underworld"). Middle row: the solar barque, preceded by various deities, including a falcon perched on a snake with two heads and four legs; four spirits with solar discs in place of heads carrying arrows, four with lances and four with bows. Upper row: a god with a scepter; a scarab holding the hieroglyph for "land" in its forelegs; the protective goddesses of Upper and Lower Egypt seated beside two erect snakes bearing the solar disc; two goddesses beside the hieroglyph for "god", on which rests the sun; lion headed and human headed goddesses, etc. Bottom row (partly destroyed): Horus, leaning on a staff, watches 12 damned souls swimming in the waters of the Underworld; four goddesses with snakes; the head of the god Seth on a scepter.The scenes on the right hand entrance wall, continuing on the right hand wall, show the sun's journey during the eleventh hour of night (11th part of the "Book of what is in the Underworld"). Middle row: the solar barque; in front of it 12 men bearing a snake; two snakes, on the backs of which are the two Egyptian crowns, with heads projecting from them; four goddesses. Upper row: a two headed god; a snake (the god Atum); the tortoise constellation, in the form of a snake on which a god is seated; a two headed god; four goddesses, each sitting on two snakes; etc. Bottom row: the damned (the enemies of the sun god being burned in curious furnaces under the supervision of the falcon headed Horus, on the right; goddesses holding swords and breathing fire; in the last furnace four corpses standing on their heads; other deities).
Tomb of Sethos I Third Pillared Chamber
Beyond the Antechamber is the third pillared chamber, from which a ramp flanked by steps leads down to the mummy shaft. This consists of a front portion, with six pillars, and a rear portion, with a vaulted roof, on a lower level. In the front section are scenes in the realm of the dead from the "Book of the Gates". In the rear section was the King's alabaster sarcophagus, now in the Soane Museum in London. The King's mummy was found at Deir el-Bahri and is now in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.On the left hand wall of the rear part of the chamber, above the doorway, the King is depicted making an offering to Harakhty. Beyond this, in four rows, is the sun's journey during the first hour of night (first part of the "Book of what is in the Underworld"). Two middle rows: above, the solar barque, adorned with a mat, in which are the ram headed sun god, seven other gods and the "mistress of the boat"; in front of it several deities, including two goddesses of truth, Osiris and the lion headed Sakhmet; below, in a boat, the sun god in the form of a scarab worshiped by two figures of Osiris; in front, three snakes and several deities. Top and bottom rows (representing the banks of the river), in small square panels: spirits in human and animal form (including baboons and fire breathing snakes) greeting the god and driving away his enemies. At the end of the left hand wall is a niche, in which the dog headed Anubis is depicted performing the ceremony of the "opening of the mouth" on Osiris.The rear wall depicts the sun's journey during the second hour of night (second part of the "Book of what is in the Underworld"). Middle row: the solar barque, with the sun god and other deities, including Isis and Nephthys in the form of cobras; in front of it four small boats, in the first of which are three armless deities, in the second a crocodile with a human head on its back, in the third (which is adorned with two gods' heads) a sistrum, two goddesses and a scarab, in the fourth (with two gods' heads) a god holding a large ostrich feather, the symbol of justice and the moon on a headrest. Top and bottom rows: various spirits and demons protecting the sun god.The right hand wall shows the sun's journey during the third hour of night (third part of the "Book of what is in the Underworld"). Middle row: the solar barque, with three smaller boats in front of it and four gods with draped arms coming to meet them. Upper and lower rows: various spirits (a ram with a sword, five bird headed demons, four enthroned figures of Osiris, etc.) greeting the procession. On the vaulted roof are constellations and other astronomical figures.
Tomb of Sethos I - Side Chamber
Side chamber to the left of the front portion of the pillared chamber: the sun's journey through the third division of the Underworld ("Book of the Gates"). Side chamber to the right: texts relating a very ancient myth of a rebellion by mankind against the sun god, their punishment and the eventual rescue of the survivors. On the rear wall is a scene from this myth: the celestial cow, supported by the god Shu and other spirits, with two solar barques sailing on its body.
Tomb of Sethos I Offering Chamber
Off the rear part of the pillared chamber opens the offering chamber, which has two pillars; on the left hand one the King is depicted in the presence of Ptah and Osiris. Round the three main walls runs a bench with a cavetto cornice, originally supported on small pillars (now destroyed) and decorated with reliefs which are almost entirely obliterated. The walls to the left depict the sun's journey during the seventh hour of night ("Book of what is in the Underworld"). Middle row: the sun god in the solar barque, on the prow of which is Isis, driving away evil spirits with her spells; in front, the goddess Selkit and a god, who have subdued a large snake; farther along, four goddesses with swords, and the tombs, adorned with human heads, of the gods Atum, Khepri, Re and Osiris. Upper row: spirits and demons; a human headed snake; a god ("Flesh of Osiris") sitting on a throne under a snake; three enemies of Osiris beheaded by a lion headed god; a god holding a rope binding three prostrate enemies; three birds with human heads, crowned; a god borne by a snake. Bottom row: Horus, preceded by the 12 star gods who conduct the sun on its nightly journey; 12 star goddesses approaching the Tomb of Osiris, on which a crocodile is lying, with the god's emerging from the burial mound.The rear wall depicts the sun's journey during the eighth hour of night ("Book of what is in the Underworld"). Middle row: the solar barque, drawn by eight men; in front, nine attendants on Re, represented by the hieroglyph for "follow", on which is a head; at the head of the procession four rams (forms of the god Tatjenen). Top and bottom rows: the dwellings of the dead, their doors opening at the approach of the sun god and revealing the spirits and gods now brought back to life; in each house in the top row three gods (beginning with the nine gods of Heliopolis), in the bottom row snakes and other spirits.Walls to the right: the sun's journey during the sixth hour of night ("Book of what is in the Underworld"). Middle row: the solar barque; in front of it Thoth enthroned (with the head of a baboon, his sacred animal), holding an ibis (another sacred animal), and a goddess holding the pupils of Horus's eyes; 16 spirits and the god Khepri, encircled by a five headed snake. Four of the spirits represent the Kings of Upper Egypt, four the Kings of Lower Egypt; the others are in the guise of mummies. In the top and bottom rows are various spirits (among them a snake with the heads of the four genii of the dead on its back and nine firebreathing snakes with swords), whose function is to destroy the sun god's enemies. The second side chamberon the right is undecorated, as is the chamber to the rear (inaccessible).